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The details of the descent of the Nassau Princes are from the very elaborate tables Afstamming van het Nederlandsche Koninghuis, by J. The following is a very brief selection of further works consulted or recommended for further study of the period: The present book is the result of years of interest in the subject, and it would be impossible to give all sources of the information slowly gathered-not always from books or documents.William III appeared under many aspects to his contemporaries; he was in Holland at once the heroic deliverer of State and Faith, and the ambitious Prince riveting chains on a free people; to the majority a popular idol, to the minority a cautious tyrant; in England he was first Prince of the Blood, husband of the heiress to the Crown, chief of an Opposition composed of careful, moderate, reasonable men (with the weight of the strong Protestant feeling of the country behind them), later he was to be the Great Deliverer or the Usurper, Champion of Whigs and Nonconformists, detested by Roman Catholics and Jacobites—"Dutch William," "Little Hook Nose," "the Squeezed Orange"—a subject of frantic praise and gratitude, and of unrestrained slander and abuse; in Ireland, "King Wullie"; in Scotland, "A man raised up by God" for the Covenanters, and for the Highlands an alien pretender to the ancient honours of the Stewarts; to Louis XIV's bitter pride he was "the Little Lord of Breda"; to the rest of Europe the head and heart of the largest confederation ever ranged together against one power, a personality so dominant that his minister could talk of the Emperor's actions as depending on their master's directions, and broadsheets show him at the Hague as bear-leader of the German Princes; and with this the Champion of Protestantism was approved of by the Papacy, well-wished and secretly encouraged by the able and upright Odaleschi, Innocent XI; most of the Princes with whom he fought against France, and with whom he lived on terms of intimate friendship, were Roman Catholics, and yet he attained his highest honours to the mob cry of "No Popperie!", while his accession to the throne of James II set back the hopes and disabled the prospects of English Roman Catholics for over a hundred years.The Revolution of 1688 may or may not have been "glorious"; to most it has come to mean the beginning of an era of settled government, of commercial prosperity, of religious freedom, of parliamentary rule and popular liberty; to others it has come to mean the end of the old glories of Kingship, the loss of the legitimate royal family, the intrusion of the ideals of the merchant and the wealthy middle class, the tyranny of democracy and the drab uniformity of a Calvinized Protestantism, tinging deeply not only the Church but the nation at large; all agree in calling the eighteenth century "the age of prose," all agree that 1688 marked a change, both wide and deep, in the history of England, and that this could not have been accomplished, as it was accomplished, with well-organized smoothness, without bloodshed (in England at least), without even dislocation of ancient laws, customs or traditions, if such a man as William of Orange, a statesman the equal of Richelieu, possessed of a rare combination of daring in design and prudence in execution, had not been at hand; this revolution and this man definitely pitted England against France, set her in a place of importance and power she had not occupied since the rule of Cromwell, helped her to break for ever the pretensions of the Bourbons (Treaty of Utrecht, 1714) and, in a sense, assume these pretensions herself; this may have been either for better or worse.
William III has frequently been so wrongly described; the author has read of him as "broken-nosed," "hunchbacked," with "a mouth indicated by a thin line," as of "a mean exterior," etc.
It is at least an important historical event in Europe.
It is not correct to think of the Prince who accomplished this as the Whig Champion, nor to picture him as he is represented on the quay at Brixham, close-haired, plain-coated, the Bible under his arm, a Dutch Cromwell, valiant for the Lord; it was not thus he appeared to the captains and his councillors, of that one can be sure, however good the likeness may be in the eyes of party historians; what manner of man, then, was this warrior-statesman?
The Marquis de Saint Maurice was the envoy of the Duke of Savoy at Versailles and accompanied Louis XIV in the campaigns of 1672-1673, of which he has left a lively account.
The vivid and touching Lettres et Mmoires de Marie, Reine d'Angleterre (The Hague, 1880), are of the first importance, and there is an interesting collection of Mary II's earlier letters in Letters of Two Queens, by B.